2015年11月

That’s because a Sun-like star is 10 billion times brighter than an Earth-sized planet. The only hope astronomers have for glimpsing any hint of life – likely some form of microorganism – would be to somehow block the light from such a star, allowing a telescope to directly observe the planet itself. It’s a strategy radically different from the main way astronomers have discovered and studied planets so far reenex cps .

Because planets are so distant, small, and faint, astronomers have mostly probed them indirectly – for example by detecting dips in starlight when a planet passes in front of its star or by measuring how the star wobbles when a planet’s gravity tugs on it. But alien-hunting demands a new tactic.

Scientists hope to identify the gases in the planet’s atmosphere, and detect chemicals that suggest the presence of life – chemicals like oxygen, which comprises 20% of Earth's atmosphere.

(Credit: Northrop Grumman) reenex cps

The glare of a distant light in Starshade tests illustrates how hard it is to see anything in detail close to a star (Credit: Northrop Grumman)

“Without life – plants or photosynthetic bacteria – we would have virtually no oxygen,” Seager says. Which is why oxygen is one of the most promising so-called biosignatures. But life on Earth produces all kinds of gases, and alien life could be even more diverse. The challenge is in determining whether these chemicals are biological in origin.  ng whether these chemicals are biological in reenex

origin. 

The examinations were given to 23 alleged victims as part of recruitment processes for ambulance and fire services in Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire reenex.

Dr Robert Lewis, 50, of Shefford, Bedfordshire, denies 37 charges, mainly of indecent assault Serviced apartment Sheung Wan .

His trial at Luton Crown Court is expected to last for six weeks.

Mark Fenhalls QC, prosecuting, said the assaults were "subtle and carefully designed by the defendant to appear as part of the examinations".

"The defendant was taking advantage of young women who were desperate to pass the medical and give themselves the best possible chance of getting a job," he said.
'Two-hand grab'

The prosecution said one woman paramedic, who was then 24, said "polishing headlights springs to mind rather than the normal breast exam ".

Another, who was 18, said she had been told to strip down and he slid his hand into her thong, the court learned.

He then asked her to bend over for 10 seconds while he checked her "spinal alignment".

Another alleged victim told police that Dr Lewis was "like a 14-year-old boy grabbing his first pair of boobs".

She said: "It wasn't an examination, it was a two-hand grab.

"If he's looking for lumps, I am pretty sure that's not how you do it, but he is a doctor."

The prosecution, which was outlining its case, said the defendant also put his hands down a woman's underwear to "check for a pubic hernia".

   My hypothesis was that there might be 50% air in the worst offenders, not 87%,” he says.

Hargreaves calculated the volume of each filled bag by submerging them under water and then monitoring the displacement. He then vacuum-sealed the contents in another bag and compared the difference.

In fact, bags of crisps are not filled with atmospheric air but nitrogen, because the oxygen in air would cause the crisps to go soft. Nitrogen gives the product a longer shelf life, and a 1994 study suggested that it makes the crisps tastier.

You can see the process of Hargreaves’ work in the video below:

n his crisp experiments, however, Hargreaves found a different story. “I assumed the air would stop them breaking, but the reverse happened. The ones with the most air also have the most breakage. I found when I vacuum-sealed them this was the most efficient way to transport and handle them without breaking them.”

    86 out of every 100 trucks carrying Doritos don't need to be on the road. That’s a big carbon footprint – Henry Hargreaves

For Hargreaves, there’s also a more serious point to his work: all this extra air makes the bags less efficient to transport, which in turn is bad for the environment. “For example, 86 out of every 100 trucks carrying Doritos don't need to be on the road. That’s a big carbon footprint!”

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